Various ecosystems in Rwanda that provide essential services such as wetlands, lakes, rivers, forests, and land have been degraded due to unregulated use, overexploitation, pollution of water sources, and encroachment among others. For example, many of the farmers cultivate land with a slope of more than 55% which leads to serious soil erosion problems. Ecosystem services support people's social-economic wellbeing in terms of livelihoods and provision of essential goods and services such as water, timber, fuelwood and medicinal plants among others; especially in Rwanda and the rest of Africa. Those living adjacent to protected areas also suffers from human/wildlife conflicts (NBSAP, 2016). This then calls for the involvement of local communities in the sustainable management of these resources. In addition, they should also share the benefits that accrue from conservation. It’s on this understanding that this target was developed to guide the development and implementation of s
National Target 13: By 2020, all ecosystems that provide essential services to human well-being and contribute to health as well as livelihoods are restored and safeguarded, taking into account the needs of women, local communities especially the vulnerable groups.