Rwanda is divided into two major drainage basins: the Nile to the east covering 67 per cent and delivering 90 per cent of the national waters and the Congo to the west which covers 33 per cent and handles all national waters (Chemonics International Inc. 2003, MINITERE 2005, NBI 2005).

Water resources in Rwanda by drainage basin Map production: REMA The country’s hydrological network includes numerous lakes and rivers and its associated wetlands. A recent inventory of marshlands in Rwanda conducted in 2008 identified shows 2 860 marshlands, covering a total surface of 278 536 ha, which corresponds to 10.6 per cent of the country surface, 101 lakes covering 149487 ha, and 861 rivers totalling 6462 km in length (REMA 2008). The major lakes include Kivu,Bulera, Ruhondo, Muhazi, Cyohoha, Sake, Kilimbi, Mirayi, Rumira, Kidogo, Mugesera, Nasho, Mpanga, Ihema, Mihindi, Rwampanga and Bisoke. The major rivers include the Akagera, Akanyaru, Base, Kagitumba, Mukungwa, Muvumba, Nyabarongo, and Ruvubu in the Nile Basin and Koko, Rubyiro, Ruhwa, Rusizi, Sebeya in the Congo Basin (Chemonics International Inc. 2003, Kabalisa 2006, NBI 2005).

Ecosystem type
Inland water ecosystem